Peer-Reviewed Publications

Publications - short list from CV 
(see 'Profile' for current CV, Publications (full list), Press List, Presentations)
    short list:
    Aarat P. Kalra, Alfy Benny, Sophie M. Travis, Eric A. Zizzi, Austin Morales-Sanchez, Daniel G. Oblinsky, Travis J. A. Craddock, Stuart R. Hameroff, M. Bruce MacIver, Jack A. Tuszynski, Sabine Petry, Roger Penrose, Gregory D. Scholes.  Electronic Energy Migration in Microtubules, Aug 22, 2022. arXiv:2208.10628 -      PDF
    Kalra, A. P., Hameroff, S., Tuszynski, J., Dogariu, A., Nicolas, Sachin, & Gross, P. J. 2022, August 14. Anesthetic gas effects on quantum vibrations in microtubules – Testing the Orch OR theory of consciousness. Date created: 2020-04-01  Last Updated: 2022-08-14 
    Kalra, Aarat P, Hameroff, S, Tuszynski, J,  Dogariu, A. “Anesthetic Gas Effects on Quantum Vibrations in Microtubules – Testing the Orch OR Theory of Consciousness.” 2020, OSF  ​August 21.  
    Hameroff, S.  Consciousness, Cognition and the Neuronal Cytoskeleton - A New Paradigm Needed in Neuroscience.  Hameroff S. Front Mol Neurosci. 2022 Jun 16;15:869935.
    ‘Orch OR’ is the most complete, and most easily falsifiable theory of consciousness.  Hameroff, Stuart. 2020. Cognitive Neuroscience, Published online: 24 Nov 2020.  
    Editorial Views. “Anesthetic action and ‘quantum consciousness: A match made in olive oil.” Hameroff, SR., 2018. Anesthesiology, 8(129):228-231
    Craddock TJA, Kurian P, Preto J, Sahu K, Hameroff SR, Klobukowski M, Tuszynski JA. Scientific Report, 2017, August. Anesthetic Alterations of Collective Terahertz Oscillations in Tubulin Correlate with Clinical Potency: Implications for Anesthetic Action and Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction.
    Hameroff, S., Newswise, September 5, 2017, Consciousness Depends on Tubulin Vibrations Inside Neurons, Anesthesia Study Suggests.  Anesthetic alterations of collective terahertz oscillations in tubulin correlate with clinical potency: Implications for anesthetic action and post-operative cognitive dysfunction. See: Craddock TJA, Kurian P, Preto J, Sahu K, Hameroff SR, Klobukowski M, Tuszynski JA. In Scientific Reports   Craddock, TJA, Hameroff SR, AT Ayoub AT, Klobukowski M,Tuszynski JA, Anesthetics Act in Quantum in Brain Microtubules to Prevent Consciousness, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 2015 15 (6), 523-33.
    Hameroff, Stuart R., Penrose, Roger, Chapter 14, eds. Roman R. Poznanski, Jack A. Tuszynski, Todd E. Feinberg, World Scientific, 2016. Consciousness in the Universe: An Updated Review of the "Orch OR" Theory, in Biophysics of Consciousness: A Foundational Approach.
    Hameroff, S.  “Change the Music: Psychotherapy and Brain Vibrations.” The Neuropsychotherapist  2016. Vol 4(4). 31-35.  pdf
    Craddock, Travis J.A., Stuart R. Hameroff, Ahmed T. Ayoub, Mariusz Klobukowski, & Jack A. Tuszynski. “Anesthetics act in quantum channels in brain microtubules to prevent consciousness.”  Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 2015 Vol 15:6, 523-533
    Hameroff, S., Commentary on Stuart Kauffman's Quantum Criticality at the Origins of Life in John Hewitt's Quantum Criticality in Life's Proteins (update),, Apr 15, 2015.
    Craddock, Travis John Adrian, Douglas Friesen, Jonathan Mane, Stuart Hameroff, & Jack A. Tuszynski. “The Feasibility of Coherent Energy Transfer in Microtubules.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2014 11(100).
    Hameroff, S.R., Craddock T.J.,  & Tuszynski J.A.  Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness.  J Integr Neurosci. 13 June 2014 (2):229-52.
    Hameroff, S., Comment on  L Turin et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., “Electron spin change during general anesthesia.”   Aug. 11, 2014
    Response Hameroff to L. Turin et al., 2014. Re Hadlington, Simon. “Knock-out theory puts new spin on general anaesthesia.”  ChemistryWorld Review.  12 August.
    Ref: Citation in Luca Turin et al. 2014 “Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophilia. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.,10.1073/ PNAS 1404387111. 26 April,
    Ref:  Hameroff, SR. 2006. “The entwined mysteries of anesthesia and consciousness: Is there a common underlying mechanism?” Anesthesiology 105(2):400–412.
    Reply to Seven Commentaries on “Consciousness in the Universe: Review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory”  Hameroff, S., & Penrose R. 2014 Physics of Life Reviews, 11:94–100.
    Hameroff, S., & Roger Penrose "Consciousness in the universe: A review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory." Physics of Life Reviews, 2014 March 11(1):39-78.
    A Review by Elsevier,  PhysOrg.  Discovery of quantum vibrations in ‘microtubules’ corroborates theory of consciousness. 16 January 2014.
    Hameroff, S., & Penrose, R., Reply to Criticism of the ‘Orch OR qubit’ – Orchestrated objective reduction is scientifically justified.” Physics of Life Reviews, 2014 11(1):104-112.
    Hameroff, Stuart, Consciousness, Microtubules and “Orch-OR”: A ‘Space-time’ Odyssey, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Imprint Academic. 2014 Vol 21, 3-4,126-153.
    Hameroff, S., Quantum walks in brain microtubules-a biomolecular basis for quantum cognition?  Top Cogn Sci., 2014 January; 6(1):91-7
    Hameroff, SR.  Quantum mathematical cognition requires quantum brain biology: the “Orch OR” theory.  Behav Brain Sci, 2013. June; 36(3):287-90.
    Comment by Hameroff, S. on: A Tale of Two Fields: “Dissipation of ‘dark energy’ by cortex in knowledge retrieval” by Capolupo, Freeman and Vitiello. Phys Life Rev. 2013 March; 10(1):95-6; discussion 112-6.
    Hameroff, S Trakas M, Duffield C, Annabi E, Gerace MB, Boyle P, Lucas A, Amos Q, Buadu A, Badal JJ,  Transcranial ultrasound (TUS) effects on mental states: a pilot study, Brain Stimul, 2013; May;6(3):409-15.
    Hameroff, S., How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will.  Front Integr Neurosci, 2012; 6:93,  Oct 12.
    Craddock TJ, St. George Marc, Freedman Holly, Barakat Khaled, Damaraju Sambasivarao, Hameroff Stuart, Tuszynski Jack A.  Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia. , PLoS One, 2012; June 25.
    Hameroff S., Quantum brain biology complements neuronal assembly approaches to consciousness: Comment on "Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses" by Baars and Edelman. Phys Life Rev. 2012 Sep;9(3):303-5; discussion 306-7.
    Craddock T, Tuszynski J, & Hameroff S.  Cytoskeletal Signaling: Is Memory Encoded in Microtubule Lattices by CaMKII Phosphorylation?  PLoS Comput Biology, 2012; March 8.
    Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA, Chopra D, Casey N, Goldstein LE, Hameroff SR, Tanzi RE, The Zinc Dyshomeostasis Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease, PLoS One, 2012; Mar 23 7(3).
    Penrose, R., & Hameroff, S.R.  “Consciousness in the Universe: Neuroscience, Quantum Space-Time Geometry and Orch OR Theory.” Journal of Cosmology, 2011, Vol 14.



    Hameroff, SR, Satsangi PS, & Sahni V. (Eds.) 2016. Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives. New Delhi: New Age Books.
    Penrose, R, Hameroff SR, Stapp HP, Chopra D & Kak S. 2011. Consciousness and the Universe. Quantum PhysicsEvolution, Brain & Mind, Journal of Cosmology.
    Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Chalmers D. (Eds.) 1999. Toward a Science of Consciousness III: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.
    Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Scott AC. (Eds.) 1998. Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.
    Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Scott AC. (Eds.) 1996. Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.
    Koruga DL, Hameroff SR, Withers J, Loutfy R, & Sundareshan M. 1993. C60 Fullerene–From Nanobiology to Nanotechnology. Amsterdam: Elsevier-North Holland.
    Hameroff SR. 1987. Ultimate Computing: Biomolecular Consciousness and NanoTechnology. Amsterdam: Elsevier-North Holland.  


    Craddock, T.J., Kurian P., Tuszynski J.A., & Hameroff S.R. 2019.  “Quantum Processes in Neurophotonics and the Origin of the Brain’s Spatiotemporal Hierarchy.”  In R.R. Alfano & L. Shi (Eds.), In Neurophotonics and Biomedical Spectroscopy. (189-213). Elsevier, abstract
    Hameroff, S.  (submitted)  “Quantum state reduction and consciousness – which comes first?”  In  Stanley Klein, Chris Cochran, Acacio de Barros & Carlos Montemayor (Eds.), In  Consciousness and Quantum Mechanics – The Work of Henry Stapp.  Springer
    Hameroff, S. (2019 – in press)  “A brief history of consciousness.”  In On the Mystery of Being: Contemporary Insights on the Convergence of Science and Spirituality. Sand Anthology, New Harbinger Publications.
    Hameroff, S., & Penrose R. 2016. “Consciousness in the Universe: An Updated Review of the “Orch OR” Theory.”  In  R. Poznanski, J.A. Tuszynski, & T.E. Feinberg, (Eds.), In The Biophysics of ConsciousnessA Foundational Approach. (517-599; Chap. 14). World Scientific.  ch-14_revised-2-3 .pdf
    Craddock, T., Hameroff, S., Tuszynski, J.A.  2016.  “The “Quantum Underground”: Where Life and Consciousness Originate.” In   R. Poznanski, J.A.Tuszynski, T.E. Feinberg, (Eds.), In The Biophysics of Consciousness – Foundational Approaches. (Chap. 13), World Scientific.
    Hameroff, S.  2016. “The Quantum Origin of Life – How the brain evolved to feel good.”  In M. Tabeyranc &       F. Ayala (Eds.),  On Human Nature. Academic Press.
    Satsangi, P.S., Hameroff, S. & Sahni, V.  2016.  “Does Consciousness Guide the Universe?” In Consciousness: Integrating Eastern andWestern Perspectives. (351-373; Sec. 2) New Age Books.
    Ebner, M., & Hameroff, S.  2015  “Modeling Figure/Ground Separation with a ‘Mobile Zone’ of Laterally-Connected Spiking  Neurons,” In Irena Roterman-Konieczna, (Ed.), In Simulation in Medicine: Preclinical and Clinical Approach. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Alfonseca, A, Ortega, M de la Cruz, Hameroff, S.R. & Lahoz-Beltra, R.  2015.  “A Model of Quantum-von Neumann  Hybrid Cellular Automata: Principles and simulation of quantum coherent superposition and decoherence in cytoskeletal microtubules.” In Quantum Information and Computation. (22-36). Rinton Press. 
    Sanguinetti, J.L., Smith E., Allen, John J.B., Hameroff, S.  2014. “Human Brain Stimulation with Transcranial Ultrasound: Potential Applications for Mental Health.” In Bio electromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine. (355-360; 2nd edition).  CRC Press.
    Hameroff, S.  2014.  “Consciousness, Free Will and Quantum Brain Biology –The ‘Orch OR’ Theory.” In A. Corradini, U. Meixner, (Eds.), In Quantum Physics Meets the Philosophy of Mind. (99-134).Berlin: De Gruyter. 
    Hameroff, S., Pylkkanen, P., & Gennaro, R.  2014.  ‘HOT to DOT’ – A ‘Deeper order thought’ theory of consciousness.” In Deepak Chopra, (Ed.),  In Brain, Mind, Cosmos: The Nature of Our Existence and the Universe.  (Chapter 15; Series Book 1),  Sages and Scientists [Kindle Edition]
    Penrose, R., & Hameroff, S.R.  2011. “Consciousness in the Universe: Neuroscience, Quantum Space-Time Geometry and Orch OR Theory.” (Vol. 14). Journal of Cosmology.
    Hameroff, S.R.  2007. “That’s Life’ – The geometry of pi electron resonance clouds.”  In  D. Abbot,  P. Davies & A.K. Pati, (Eds.) In Quantum aspects of life. Biology. Imperial College Press.   
    Hameroff, S.R.  2004. “Consciousness, neurobiology and quantum mechanics: The case for a connection.”  In Jack Tuszynski, (Ed.). The emerging physics of consciousness. Springer.
    Hameroff, S. & Tuszynski, J.  2004 June. “Quantum states in proteins and protein assemblies.” Proceedings of SPIE Conference on Fluctuationa and Noise, Canary Islands.  
    Hameroff, S.R., & Tuszynski,  J.  2003. “Search for quantum and classical modes of information processing in microtubules: Implications for the living state.” In Franco Musumeci & Mae-Wan Ho (Eds.), Bioenergetic organization in living systems. Singapore: World Scientific.
    Hameroff, S.R.  2003. “Time, consciousness and quantum events in fundamental spacetime geometry.” In  R. Buccheri & M. Saniga (Eds.), The nature of time: Physicsgeometry and perceptionProceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop.
    Hameroff, S.R.  2003. “Consciousness, Whitehead and quantum computation in the brain: Panprotopsychism meets the physics of fundamental spacetime geometry.” In M. Weber, (Ed.), Whitehead Process Network Compendium.
    Hameroff, S.R., & Woolf N.J.  2002.  “Quantum consciousness: A cortical neural circuit,” In  Naoyuki Osaka, (Ed.),  Neural Basis of Consciousness.  (167-200) Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  
    Hameroff, S.   2001.  “Biological feasibility of quantum approaches to consciousness – The Penrose-Hameroff  “Orch OR” model.”  In  Philip van Looke, (Ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness.  (1-61). John Benjamins.
    Hameroff, S.R.  1999. “Anesthesia.” In J. Brockman (Ed.),  Greatest inventions of the past 2000 years. (94-98). Simon and Schuster.
    Hameroff, S.R. 1998.  “Funda-Mental geometry: The Penrose-Hameroff “Orch OR” model of consciousness,” In Huggett N.S.A., Mason L.J., Tod K.P., Tsou S.T., & Woodhouse N.M.J. (Eds.),  The Geometric Universe – Science, geometry and the work of Roger Penrose.  (135-160).
    Hameroff, S.R.  1998. “Did Consciousness Cause the Cambrian Evolutionary Explosion?”  In Hameroff, S.R, Kaszniak A.W.,  & Scott,  A.C., (Eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. (421-437). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hameroff, S., Scott, A.  1998.  “A Sonoran Afternoon” – Discussion on the relevance of quantum theory to consciousness.” In Hameroff, S.R., Kaszniak, A.W. & Scott, A.C., (Eds.), (635-643). Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hameroff, S.  1998. “More neural than thou (A reply to Patricia Churchland),”  In  Hameroff, S.R., Kaszniak, A.W. & Scott, A.C., (Eds.), (197-213). Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hameroff, S.  1997.  “Consciousness Studies: An overview.” In Taddei-Ferretti,  C. , Musio, C., (Eds.), (3-13).  Neuronal and psychological aspects of consciousness. Series on Biophysics and Biocybernetics. (Vol. 8) – Biocybernetics. World Scientific.
    Hameroff, S.  1997. “Quantum computing in microtubules: The Penrose-Hameroff  Orch OR Model,” In Taddei-Ferretti, C., Musio, C., (Eds.), (479-506).   Neuronal and psychological aspects of consciousness, Series on Biophysics and Biocybernetics Vol 8 – Biocybernetics. World Scientific.
    Hameroff, S.R.  1997.  “Quantum computing in microtubules: an intra-neural correlate of consciousness?”  In Cognitive Studies: Bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society. 4(3): 67-92).
    Boswell, M.V., Hameroff, S.R., 1996.  “Theoretical mechanisms of general anesthesia,” In  VJ Collins (Ed.),  Principles of Anesthesiology, 3rd Edition, Volume 3: The Physiologic and Pharmacologic Basis of Anesthesia, Philadelphia:  Lea and Feiberger.  
    Hameroff, S.R. 1996.  “Cytoplasmic Gel States and Ordered Water: Possible Roles in Biological Quantum Coherence,” Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, TX. 
    Hameroff, S., Penrose, R.,  1996.  “Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness,” In  S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak &  A. Scott., (Eds.), (507-540). Toward a Science of Consciousness – The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A Model For Consciousness 1996.pdf
    Louria, D., Hameroff, S.,  1996. “Computer simulation of anesthetic binding in protein hydrophobic pockets,” In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak &  A. Scott., (Eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness – The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hameroff, S., Penrose, R. 1996. “Conscious events as orchestrated space-time selections,”  In D. Chalmers &  J. Shear (Eds.),   Explaining consciousness – the “hard problem” of conscious experience.
    Hameroff, S., Penrose, R. 1995.  “Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness?” In  J. King and K. Pribram (Eds.), (243-274). Scales in Conscious Experience, Is the brain too important to be left to specialists to study?  Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hameroff, S.R., Polson, J.S., Watt, R.C.  1994. “Monitoring Anesthetic Depth,” In  C. Blitt, Churchill Livingstone (Eds.), Monitoring in Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine- 3rd ed. (491-507). 
    Pribram Karl, Hameroff SR, Koruga, Djuro. “Sub-Neural Mechanisms,” TSC Consciousness I, Tucson, Arizona, April 12-17, 1994.
    Hameroff, S., Karampurwala, H., & Rasmussen, S., (Eds.), 1990. June; 17-21; 3:715-720).  “Adaptive behavior in sub-neural microtubule automata.” IJCNN International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE Publisher.
    Hameroff, S., Rasmussen, S., & Mansson, B. 1988.  “Molecular automata in microtubules: basic computational logic of the living state,” In  C. Langton, (Ed.),  (521-553). Artificial Life: SFI Studies in the Science of Complexity. New York: Addison-Wesley.